In a follow‐up correspondence analysis of six national press systems over a 40‐year time span, he finds similar political news cultures (Esser & Umbricht, 2013). Like cases are treated alike, and different cases are treated differently; the extent of difference determines how differently cases are to be treated. Spatially, cross-national comparisons are by far the most common, although comparisons within countries, contrasting different areas, cultures or governments also subsist and are very constructive, especially in a country like New Zealand, where policy often changes depending on which race it pertains to. The historical comparative research involves comparing different time-frames. It combines quantitative, variable‐based logic and qualitative, case‐based interpretation. It is further noted that spatial (cross‐territorial) comparisons should be supplemented wherever possible by a longitudinal (cross‐temporal) dimension to account for the fact that systems and cultures are not frozen in time; rather, they are constantly changing under the influence of transformation processes, such as Americanization, Europeanization, globalization, modernization, or commercialization. In particular, measuring complex news frames, latent evaluations, and ambiguous meanings continues to present a tremendous challenge, and cross‐cultural research reinforces problems associated with this measurement. An important tool may be the committee approach, in which an interdisciplinary multicultural team of individuals who have expert knowledge of the cultures, languages, and specific research fields jointly develop the research tools (Van de Vijver & Leung, 1997). A third type of research question is the comparison of relation, which involves investigating in different contexts the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable. When it comes to subject matter of comparative inquiries, many contend there is none unique to it. Both characteristics prevent higher‐level statistics from being used effectively for testing construct equivalence in cross‐national content analyses. Comparative research is useful for classifying shared social phenomena, placing cultural values in context and analyzing cultural differences. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management. They investigate the effect of exposure to conflict framing on turnout for the 2009 European parliamentary elections campaign. Learn more. Presenting a justification for case selection is particularly important for smaller samples. Reese (2001) argues, for instance, that the meaning of journalistic professionalism varies across countries depending on factors of influence on several layers of analysis. Depending on the sample size, the following research strategies are available. Holtz‐Bacha and Norris (2001), for example, test the effects of public television preferences on political knowledge and find that in 10 out of the 14 countries they studied, a positive and significant relationship was present. Large‐N studies work best in areas where data are available for secondary analysis from international data archives, something that is rarely the case in communication studies (appropriate strategies for analyzing smaller‐N and larger‐N studies will be presented in more detail). Here, the longitudinal aspect might become more important compared to the cross‐sectional aspect. The fourth issue is that of unit‐level heteroscedasticity, which suggests that the model explains variance for one unit better than it does for the other. Learn about our remote access options. In these instances, it makes sense to rely on multilevel modeling, though alternative strategies can also be considered when the number of higher level units is limited (e.g., clustered standard errors). Hantrais (1999, pp. Providing contextual descriptions of a set of foreign systems or cultures enhances our understanding and our ability to interpret diverse communication arrangements. The comparative communication scholar, however, still faces a substantial number of challenges. It goes one step beyond the comparison of relation question in that it addresses explanations for different relationships across units by taking characteristics of those units into consideration. Health Monitor Journal of the Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research. A sophisticated extension of the most different and most similar logic was developed by Charles Ragin (1987, 2008). On the most basic level, comparison involves the description of differences and similarities. In addition to these general benefits, comparison also has specific scientific advantages. Overall, there are several conditions that should be fulfilled before labeling a comparison as a mature comparative analysis. A Call to Contextualize Public Opinion-Based Research in Political Communication. Accordingly, there are four issues to be considered. In this case, one deals with a pooled dataset and can subject it to pooled time series analysis. VARIOUS TYPES OF RESEARCHES VAISALI K B070225AR 2. … However, as these processes still occur within national contexts, these national pathways can still be subjected to comparative analysis. [4] A typical method of comparing welfare states is to take balance of their levels of spending on social welfare.[3]. Additionally, the entry discusses statistical techniques that can be used to analyze quantitative comparative data, and we end with a discussion on how globalization impacts comparative (mainly cross‐national) research, as well as how such trends might call for the integration of research with multiple research units at multiple levels. Quantitative Methodology; A hands‐on primer on how to conduct multilevel models is available in Hayes (2005). Comparative research is a research methodology in the social sciences that aims to make comparisons across different countries or cultures. These external influences can express structural power or dependency relations between media systems (i.e., the hegemonic impact of core powers on peripheral systems in a given network), cultural imperialism of values (“Americanization”), penetration of ideological or economic values (from the West to the South or East), or more neutral processes of interconnectivity and diffusion of ideas. Cosmopolitan communications: Cultural diversity in a globalized world, Doing research in political science. But even within the same comparative study, achieving comparability across data gathered in various countries can be challenging. Second, in addition to incorporating the linking mechanisms between individual cases and transnational structures, comparativists must study the interplay between external (border‐transgressing) and internal (domestic) factors, as it will help them understand how media systems respond to transnational influences. First, the purpose of comparison must be explicated early in the project, and it should be a defining component of the research design. Sampling, Nonrandom; More specifically, the more positive the coverage, the stronger the effect of conflict framing. In many respects, the challenges to conduct solid comparative research are tremendous, as will become clear throughout this entry. Whereas the first sub‐approach, glocalization, asks how global media phenomena are appropriated within distinct national borders, the second sub‐approach, de‐territorialization, questions the idea of fixed national borders and asks what new border‐transgressing scapes and spheres have emerged that are cutting across national borders. Once construct equivalence is proven convincingly, an etic approach is acceptable. They rely on a set of regression analyses, one for each single country. Macro‐level cases, however defined, are assumed to provide characteristic contextual conditions for a certain object that is investigated across cases. 10+ Comparative Research Examples Survey Methods, Traditional, Public Opinion Polling; Reliability; This technique often utilizes multiple disciplines in one study. This is important to keep in mind when considering the generalizability of findings. In many instances, it may be possible to obtain data for a relatively solid sample of Western countries, but it may be more difficult for countries from other parts of the word. Entrepreneurial ecosystems in Bulgaria and Romania: A comparative analysis. Hitting a Nerve: Populist News Articles Lead to More Frequent and More Populist Reader Comments, https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118901731.iecrm0035, Longitudinal Data Analysis, Panel Data Analysis, Measurement Invariance (Time, Samples, Contexts), Survey Methods, Traditional, Public Opinion Polling. A fourth innovation, which was mentioned previously, is the adoption of a multilevel approach in comparative communication research where the national level is merely one among many levels. If these interaction terms are not significant, the relationship is similar across countries. are regarded as cases with theoretically relevant attributes. Comparative studies can be used to increase understanding between cultures and societies and create a foundation for compromise and collaboration. WHAT IS RESEARCH?The systematic, rigorous investigation of asituation or problem in order to generate newknowledge or validate existing knowledge. In this sense, it may no longer suffice to compare one nation's journalists with another national sample. Consequently, they call for “harmonization of the research object and the research method” across studies to guarantee the best possible comparability and generalizability. In comparable cases, even additional levels can be considered such as journalists nested in organizations nested in countries (Hanitzsch & Berganza, 2012). Both strategies have many parallels and can be pulled together under the rubrics of Most Similar Systems – Different Outcomes and Most Different Systems – Similar Outcomes. As a consequence, two sub‐approaches are identified. The two main types of statistical analysis and methodologies are descriptive and inferential. Different methods exist in comparative legal research despite the effort of the discipline to combine them. Recent advances and remaining challenges for social science research, Comparing nations: Concepts, strategies, substance, Who's afraid of conflict? … Combining cross‐sectional and longitudinal designs helps to understand these transformation processes and makes clear that different contexts affect the results in different ways. However, there are other types that also deal with many aspects of data including data collection, prediction, and planning. This fuzzy‐set logic (fsQCA) has, for example, been applied by Downey and Stanyer (2010) in their investigation of the presence of personalization of political communication in 20 countries. As Rössler (2012) notes, any selection based on these criteria must also be discussed with reference to proportionality if the media markets or relevant market sectors differ in size. In an ideal setting, coder training is intense and repeated until intercoder reliability is sufficiently satisfactory. An ideal study combines both options by first developing a conceptual framework based on multinational input and then identifying the extent to which conceptual equivalence can be assumed on the basis of the investigated empirical material. In sum, the structure of different media systems must be considered when drawing samples for cross‐national content analyses. This interpreta-tion is certainly valid. A descriptive quantitative research needs many numbers of descriptive research questions compared to other research methods. Comparative research differs from non‐comparative work in that it attempts to reach conclusions beyond single cases and explains differences and similarities between objects of analysis and relations between objects against the backdrop of their contextual conditions. It is now vital that these concepts and frameworks be used, criticized, amended, and refined as beginning from scratch in each new publication will not advance the field of comparative communication research. Be combined, as they offer the opportunity for prediction? the systematic, rigorous of. In surveys to an equal selection of respondents and in media content analyses this is Esping-Andersen 's research on welfare! What is research? the systematic, rigorous investigation of asituation or problem in order generate. Many respects, the structure of a state this notion of path‐dependency is reflected... 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