Try planting hairy vetch around squash, or clover underneath corn. The vines of hairy vetch, which can be 4 feet tall, tend to wrap around chisel shanks, making this tool unsuitable to incorporate hairy vetch cover crops. [15][16], "Invasive in Native Habitats of the Southern Willamette Valley", "Midwest Invasive Plant Network Midwest Invasive Plant List", "Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States — Vicia villosa", "Vicia villosa Roth ssp. In a mixed stand of hairy vetch and oats, the oats provide quick cover and capture snow that helps protect the young vetch seedlings in the winter. It is possible to establish hairy vetch after early corn silage harvest in parts of Pennsylvania. Conservative estimates are that 50 percent of this will be available to the following crop. To plant hairy vetch, plow the soil as you would for any regular crop. Organic gardeners often plant hairy vetch (a nitrogen-fixing legume) as a companion plant to tomatoes, as an alternative to rotating crops in small growing areas. Seeding hairy vetch after corn grain or soybean harvest is not recommended because the vetch is then unlikely to survive the winter. This should be considered an advantage rather than a disadvantage. Vicia dasycarpa Ten. 'Auburn', 'Oregon', and 'Lana' are better adapted to warmer winters. Hairy vetch can fix large amounts of nitrogen that are released rapidly after it has been terminated. 'Madison' was developed in Nebraska and is very cold tolerant. Minnesota research has shown better winter survival of hairy vetch grown from locally produced seed than from seed produced farther south. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. Mow the hairy vetch before the plant flowers in spring. Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) Hairy vetch is a hardy type of vetch suited to wetter soil and colder winters than other winter-active legumes. In this case, use no more than 2 bushels/A of oats or 1 bushel/A of rye, triticale, wheat, or barley mixed with a full seeding rate of hairy vetch. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] It is also found in most Canadian provinces. Research is ongoing to develop methods to reduce hard seed by scarification or other methods. It is possible to broadcast seed at 20-30 lbs/A and use a light disking or field cultivation to improve seed to soil contact. Brown avoids the risk of winterkill by planting the mixture of hairy vetch, oats and peas in late March or early April. Plant Guide WOOLLYPOD VETCH Vicia villosa Roth ssp. Hairy vetch is one of the most winter hardy legumes. Purple flowers form in early to mid summer. We no-till drilled hairy vetch into a partially winter-killed stand of fall-planted spring oats. Attracts beneficial insects. Hairy Vetch can enrich the soil with 60-120 pounds of nitrogen per acre. Monitor seeding depth of corn and that hairy vetch vines do not wrap around row cleaners. If your cucumbers need shade from the hot sun, try planting sunflowers in between the cucumber plants. It is important to have a lead coulter in front of each plow bottom to avoid wrapping of hairy vetch vines on the standard assembly. The best time for no-till corn planting into hairy vetch varies with local rainfall patterns, soil type, desired N contribution, season length and vetch maturity. If the latter occurs, lift row cleaners up. New Natural Fertilizer Doubles Garden Production… It took her about ten minutes to plant this space with a nice cover crop. More acceptable for hay than hairy vetch.Seeding rate 50 to 75 lbs/acre. Broadcasting seed followed by light disking and culti-packing is the most common planting method. Hairy vetch does best on well-drained soils and is not recommended for poorly drained soils. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) is a legume that's related to peas and beans. The leaves of common vetch are similar to hairy vetch. acephala) in your vegetable garden. Ratings are based on labeled application rates (0 = no control, 10 = complete control). Research has shown that hairy vetch mulch can increase main crop disease resistance and prolong leaf photosynthesis of the following crop. It grows taller when planted with a tall companion crop that provides structural support for climbing. Decomposition and nitrogen release rates are faster if the vetch is incorporated, but total amount of nitrogen released over the entire growing season is similar to vetch left on the surface as a mulch. Make sure crop residue from the previous crop is well distributed if establishing hairy vetch with no-till methods and kill existing vegetation with a burndown herbicide. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Hairy vetch is very similar to tufted vetch (Vicia cracca), the most noticeable difference being that tufted vetch has a smooth stem. Its abundant, viney vegetation can be a benefit and a challenge. If tillage is used, it is important to realize that most conservation tillage tools such as chisel plows or disks are unlikely to completely kill the hairy vetch. And now you’re wondering which plants are the best companions for this cherished cruciferous plant. When hairy vetch, common vetch, crimson clover, and Austrian winter pea were planted in a mixture with cereal rye, spring oats, or winter wheat, the cereal rye/hairy vetch mixture had 30 to 45 percent less residual inorganic soil nitrogen than legume-only plots. [14] Despite being native to part of Europe it is considered an alien or invasive species in some European countries, such as Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain. Use seed that has been inoculated with the appropriate rhizobium strain (hairy vetch/pea group Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae) to guarantee nitrogen fixation. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. Fertilizer is usually not needed, and N fertilizer or manure applications can be detrimental because they stimulate grasses and small grains to be more competitive. The tomato-vetch trial plots, using no nitrogen fertilizer and without any weeding, have consistently outyielded plastic-and-fertilizer plots by about 25 percent, and fertilized bare soil by 100 percent. Knapp isn’t sounding bitter, but simply wants livestock owners to be on the lookout for the purple flower that graces the hairy vetch plant. Hairy vetch fixes large amounts of nitrogen (N) that help meet N needs of the following crop, protects soil from erosion, helps improve soil tilth, and provides weed control during its vigorous growth in the spring and when left as a dead mulch at the soil surface. The long, slender stems of hairy vetch are weak and the plant uses tendrils to clasp onto other objects for support. It is possible to broadcast seed at 20-30 lbs/A and use a light disking or field cultivation to improve seed to soil contact. Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) Repels potato bugs. Ideally, hairy vetch seed should be planted at a depth of one to two inches. For success, hairy vetch needs to be established in late summer (before mid-August in northern Pennsylvania and higher altitudes; September 1 in central Pennsylvania; and before the middle of September in southern Pennsylvania). The threat of hair pinning of residue in the seed slot is greatest when no-till planting into a vetch cover that is dying but not dry and crisp. To fix much nitrogen, the hairy vetch should not be terminated too early in the spring (Table 1). Little management is usually required once hairy vetch is established. Trial unfamiliar combinations on a … If volunteer small grain cannot be counted on, then it is recommended to seed a hairy vetch/small grain mix instead of pure hairy vetch. In addition to fixing nitrogen, a vetch cover crop improves soil health and structure. Hairy vetch flowers are small and long, at least 8 purple flowers in a raceme. Plant Symbol = VIVIV8 Contributed by: USDA NRCS California State Office and Lockeford Plant Materials Center, California Alternate Names Hairy vetch, winter vetch, woolly vetch Uses Range Improvement: Woollypod vetch is … Kayla planted this garden with hairy vetch on New Year’s Day. Later establishment will usually lead to a poor stand due to winterkill. It is a legume, grown as a forage crop, fodder crop, cover crop, and green manure. This species is known to have a great rooting system, with a tap root that will extend 1 to 3 feet into the soil profile. It is excellent when planted as a cover crop ahead of a food plot planting of corn, millet or grain sorghum to supply organic nitrogen and improve soil tilth. Hairy vetch is a cover crop. Results may differ with variations in cover crop size, temperature, and rainfall. These varieties were developed for their earlier spring growth. Planting the legume with another cover crop like oats or cereal rye increases fall weed suppression and increases plant diversity. Seeding rate: 15-30 lbs/A (lower rate if drilled; higher when tilled in), Inoculation: use vetch/pea Rhizobium inoculant, Biomass accumulation: mostly in the spring (April/May), Nitrogen fixation: mostly in the spring (April/May), Burndown herbicide: 2,4-D, dicamba, clopyralid, or mixes, Soil preparation and main crop planting: vetch vines can wrap around tillage shanks or row cleaners. Vetch does not tend to wrap around disk plow assemblies, but incorporation of the vetch may not be sufficient to allow seedbed preparation. Vicia ambigua Guss. Vicia elegantissima Rouy Hairy vetch is a branching, spreading annual that forms a dense ground cover. It can even be used as a companion plant in your smaller garden plot. It is best used in mixtures with cool season annual grasses and clovers. Oats and Hairy Vetch Hairy Vetch Page 5 of 30 [12] Some sources consider it generally invasive in areas with suitable climate for it to out-compete native species, in a manner similar to how cow vetch, Vicia cracca, is regarded. You know for what your using the rye for, ground cover - green compost, you … The timing of this practice is essential for success. The Auburn University seeding recommendation for hairy vetch is 20 to 25 pounds of seed per acre if the seed is to be broadcast. When it is time to plant tomatoes in the spring, the hairy vetch is cut to the ground and the tomato seedlings are planted in holes dug through the matted residue and stubble. The leaves of hairy vetch are oblong, with 5-10 pairs of leaves per leaflet. A good place in a crop rotation for hairy vetch establish- ment is after small grain harvest. Since oats winter-kill in most of Pennsylvania, there will be a pure hairy vetch stand left in the spring. Some limited variety development has taken place in hairy vetch. Hairy vetch is an annual or biennial spreading herb with climbing stems growing up to 3 feet long. The soil was on the brink of freezing beneath the residue, but it still had some give. In spring, triticale and wheat mature at about the same time as hairy vetch, whereas rye will mature prior to hairy vetch flowering. Vicia varia Host. Another option is to broadcast hairy vetch in standing soybeans, but this is uncommon because of the expense of the seed and the higher risk of failure with this method than if vetch is drilled. Follow label guidelines. Hairy vetch usually survives the winter in Pennsylvania as long as it is established in late summer/early fall. Two new vetch varieties released by USDA are 'Purple Bounty' and 'Purple Prosperity'. A good herbicide program to terminate hairy vetch is a mix of glyphosate and 2,4-D or dicamba (Table 2). When it is time to plant tomatoes in the spring, the hairy vetch is cut to the ground and the tomato seedlings are planted in holes dug through the matted residue and stubble. Each small grain/hairy vetch mixture has its advantages and drawbacks. Typically, hairy vetch contains 3.5 to 4 percent nitrogen (dry matter basis). If the hairy vetch mulch does not adequately control weeds in this system, additional control measures using a high-residue cultivator or other postemergence strategies will be necessary. The stand smothers spring weeds, however, and can help you replace all or most nitrogen fertilizer needs for late-planted crops. Using a herbicide for termination of hairy vetch and no-till establishment of the following crop helps maintain more benefits such as superior soil protection and greater moisture conservation than if tillage is used. It prefers a soil pH between 6.0 and 7.0 and is adapted to high soil fertility status (phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur). 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