By recognizing these multiple patterns of urbanization, especially its subaltern nature, rural areas could attract investments, job creation and ultimately the benefits from urban growth in the vicinity. • Limited access to social protection: About 73% of the world population have no adequate access to social protection. Evidence from India. Urbanization is an outcome of the development process and is intrinsically linked to the evolving food systems. Economic opportunities The economic opportunities of women in rural and agricultural livelihoods have been impacted by their increased care responsibilities, disruptions in local markets and agricultural processors and the growing importance of digital channels. Villages proximate to census towns are not very different from those proximate to statutory towns (Mukhopadhyay, 2017). A challenge for policy makers in India, however, has been to provide skills and increase the workforce participation of rural women. Through the National Policy for Skills Development and Entrepreneurship in India, the government is trying to increase women labor participation through skilling and gender mainstreaming of skills. Tomich, T. P., Kilby, P., & Johnston, B. F. (1995). Around 79% of workers who work in the informal sector can be classified as poor without any job or social security (NCEUS, 2008). Better results can be had by facilitating easier movement of labor to areas of better opportunity which point to the importance of urban infrastructure to facilitate rural-urban migration. A balanced food equation implies food sufficiency where domestic food demand is met by overall supplies. Estimates and analysis of farm income in India, 1983–84 to 2011–12. The monsoon rain plays a critical role in the sustenance of agriculture Policy has not yet leveraged the potential of small towns and the peri-urban spaces as a means to create new job opportunities. It is fairly well established that Indian agriculture is dominated by smallholders, and fragmentation of land is the root cause of poverty and inequality in rural areas (Chakravorty, Chandrasekhar, & Naraparaju, 2016). This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Transforming Food Systems for a Rising India Job Opportunities. livelihood of rural households. the 20 years since he began, Gitaram has emerged as a leading social “We, In India, newer organizations like Gold Farm are using Farming as a Service (FaaS) model where farm equipment can be hired through cellphones or call centers. Development Center and Vigyan Ashram, a center of Indian Institute Of Education (IIE), Views are personal. Unprecedented growth in the construction and the service sector over the last decade has led to a greater number of jobs but also led to greater casualization of the labor force. While this is the standard classification of what is considered as “urban” in India, CTs are peculiar in the way that despite being urban, these settlements continue to be administered as rural areas. We build upon the idea that promotion of the rural non-farm economy should be an important component of India’s rural transformation strategy. Mellor, J. W., & Johnston, B. F. (1984). The right set of public policies, however, are essential to ensure smooth, inclusive and sustainable urbanization for structural transformation to take place. Source: Data from Indian Census 1961–2011, based on author’s calculations (Note: We have used data for the major Indian states, and district boundaries represent the 1971 divisions for the sake of comparability over time. Agricultural technology and farm-nonfarm growth linkages. This would enable an easier transportation of food to the urban population while generating downstream employment concerning moving agricultural produce off the farm and into or through the supply chain. After Rural areas are those areas that do not have modern facilities and the population is way lower than in cities. Accessed on July 24, 2018. farmer is bound to follow natural farming techniques and is equipped with a At the same time, quality education and health infrastructure, in addition to the issue of access to land, irrigation and other natural resources are increasingly becoming important. In 2011–12, 84% of India’s population was classified as net consumers of rice, much of which was purchased in the market (CITE). empowerment, skill development and creating entrepreneurs. The major cities, over-loaded with a bulk of unskilled rural youth can only offer minimum wage labour opportunities. More and more people living in rural areas travel to small towns and service centres in search of consumer goods, services and labour opportunities. It has been shown that 10% growth in organized food processing leads to 5% employment growth in this sector (World Bank, 2015). In this section, we will highlight some of the policy strategies which could be prioritized to encourage the non-farm sector in India. Through production linkages, agriculture connects to non-farm suppliers of raw materials and farm inputs. He has advanced a All Rights Reserved. ). total population of 7,429, as per Census 2011. Its body was epoxy-coated to make it waterproof. At the same time, India’s growth story across the globe is of its sprawling metropolises with an abundance of technically skilled manpower and seats of global innovation. With overall economic growth, better rural infrastructure and declining rural-urban travel time distances, the composition of the rural non-farm sector in India has changed; construction and manufacturing sectors have become major employment sources. The analytical lens of a food system approach here is particularly helpful in imagining rural as farm production and beyond—encompassing various food-related non-farm activities such as storage, processing, distribution and transportation of food in addition to many other services which do not necessarily fall within the realm of food production but provide livelihood opportunities to the rural population.3, Livelihood diversification and non-farm employment are important levers for rural economic growth. Urban and rural areas are closely linked, each contributing to the other, which needs to be considered in development planning. Without an appropriate change in the governance frameworks, rural transformations would continue to be constrained. The program is designed to improve incomes of MSEs and workers up to 25 per cent of their current wages across all levels by improving access to work and by enhancing skill levels through: Active training (both in-house and through industry partnerships). Transitioning toward nutrition-sensitive food systems in developing countries. Many of these points will be discussed in the following chapters. “Besides Ito, T., & Kurosaki, T. (2009). Indian policy makers thus face a precarious challenge where they not only need to ensure cultivation is remunerative for greater rural income but also create an enabling environment where quality non-farm economic activities are accessible to a wider rural population which are at a disadvantage because of lack of education, skills, social networks and financial capital. Lack of education and the required skills inhibit a smooth transition into the non-farm sector. The theory of structural transformation suggests a decline in agriculture’s share in total output and employment over time. As the agricultural value chains develop, there would be greater demand for those who can work in related logistics, from aggregation to storage and processing. (2016) have shown that public service provisioning such as solid waste management and street lighting in census towns is fairly similar to that of villages. Both the non-governmental organizations are involved in rural Agriculture, therefore, may no longer continue to be the defining feature of the economic and cultural life in rural areas. Source: Data from Census of India 2011; based on author’s calculations. “A These linkages, however, assign primacy to the agriculture as a driver of these connections. avail of the courses. migration of youth to cities by upskilling them and creating new entrepreneurs, Employment outcomes along the rural-urban gradation. Hazell (2018) recognizes a growing differentiation within the agricultural sectors of developing countries. Against the common notion which equates urbanization with big cities and planning, Indian urbanization has been noted to have a subaltern character, which implies a rapid rise in settlement agglomerations, which are often not classified as urban by the Indian census operations (Denis, Zerah, & Mukhopadhyay, 2012). The development strategy path followed by a nation, therefore, is central to how the food equation balances.4, Change in the agricultural workforce. Rural poverty reduction is also influenced through greater urbanization and the rise in the demand for rural products. We use an integrated approach to holistically prepare families to be resilient to unforeseen shocks. Lei et al. Mimeo. (2016). Shubham Shembade (24) told At the same time, they also serve an economic and social role through enhancing household access to food. “I Through organized upstream and downstream networks of activities with the emergence of greater agribusiness opportunities, surplus agricultural labor—especially youth and women—are expected to be employed in value chain processes. The near absence of voices from livelihoods nonprofits on the debates on farm acts 2020 has been a disconcerting phenomenon. © 2020 Village Square. The world food equation: Interrelations among development, employment, and food consumption. Yuva Kendra Sanghatan (NYKS), This has resulted in pervasive poverty, growing income disparities and rural-out-migration in many places. Haggblade, S., Hazell, P., & Reardon, T. (2010). Instead of a rural-urban binary, we now have a rural-urban continuum which is expanding along with structural transformation of the economy. Chapter 47, Economic development and the decline of agricultural employment (pp. Kadam Investment in rural infrastructure goes a long way in reducing the economic distance between rural and urban areas. We focus on these blurring of the rural-urban distinction which provide an opportunity to diversify the portfolio of economic opportunities available to rural households, thereby enabling greater rural income and improved access to food and nutrition. Livelihoods mean the type of jobs and lifestyles people lead to earn a living. The key activities of the projects are: Rural Community Development: To enable holistic development of villages and its people, the projects focuses on improving livelihood, health, early childhood development, youth related activities, education, water & sanitation, environment, and strengthening grassroots institutions. 3051–3083). “The women are now making between Rs 12,000 and Rs India’s growth experience suggests a steep rise in inter-personal inequality (Jayaraj & Subramanian, 2013; Motiram & Naraparaju, 2015). power supply and lower rates at night are the twin things every farmer wishes for. 3,199 billion to Rs. In most rural areas of the world, approximately 90 % of the population is involved in farming as a way of earning a living. Thus, in this chapter, we will be looking at the different types of rural livelihoods. Against this background, this chapter discusses the evolving role of non-farm income in determining household food security and nutrition in rural India through diversification of incomes and livelihoods. (1954). Gitaram Kadam uses solar and wind power to ensure regular electricity supply to his agricultural farm (Photo courtesy Gramin Tantragyan Sanstha). By moving underemployed agricultural labor towards non-farm economic opportunities, it is expected to enhance capabilities and raise household living standards (Ellis, 1998). Similarly, rural employment which links to agricultural inputs and mechanization are expected to develop fast with the spread of technology and cellphones.8 Hello Tractor in Nigeria is a stellar example of leveraging technology to generate employment avenues in rural areas. This has been attributed to the outdated syllabus at these vocational institutes which create a mismatch between the quality of training and requirements of the job. In Also, the reliance on cultivation as the main source of livelihood in rural areas is declining with the growth of smaller towns and non-farm livelihood opportunities. ), Labor share by state classification. guava, moringa and leafy vegetables like spinach, coriander, fenugreek, etc. Foundation established my power requirement and reduces my carbon footprints,” said Kadam, elaborating It has been instrumental in the spawning of 400-plus addition, combined with a marketing chain created by local businesses can free 5. It runs directly to a 3 phase submersible pump.”. The formal service sector which provides a better quality of employment and written contracts, however, requires more skilled and educated workers. Puducherry-based Minvayu that works on decentralized rural electrification, Saha, P., & Verick, S. (2017). It is a widely accepted fact that agricultural households engage in a wide range of economic activities apart from cultivation. Agricultural issues should be focused towards smallholders, specifically increasing their commercially viability through connecting them to markets. Land fragmentation leads to a reduction in the mean plot size below the threshold beyond which mechanization becomes a challenge. This is reflected in the greater share of marginal workers in the small towns and rapid emergence of smaller towns and large villages along the poorer regions of Indo-Gangetic plains—like in UP and Bihar (Mukhopadhyay, 2017). However, understanding the variegated nature of urbanization is crucial to understand its impact on rural poverty. Motiram, S., & Naraparaju, K. (2015). While urbanization and changing employment patterns offer opportunities for a more diversified food system, the challenge lies in ensuring these transformations are smooth and contribute to sustainable poverty reduction. While non-farm jobs reduce inequality through alleviating unequal access to land (Joshi & Lanjouw, 2016), formal sector employment would ensure it is more sustainable. In the same region, the Kisan Mahila Mandal self-help group (SHG) set up a decentralised, solar-powered rice mill with the support of a local organisation, LEADS, and the State Livelihood Mission, a programme by the Indian government focussed on self-employment and building capacity among people living in rural poverty. I incurred over three years of power bills.”. The residential school offering education exclusively to tribal children has helped girls like Phulaki Wadaka become a post graduate (Photo by Abhijit Mohanty), Villagers of Chuikhim have built a secondary school, to ensure that their children’s education continued beyond primary level (Photo courtesy Sapan Gurung), By the efforts of villagers Bondvol Lake, the community-owned water body, would soon be declared as a wetland (Photo by Arturo D'Souza). Chandrasekhar, S. (2011). These commuting workers are primarily engaged in manufacturing, construction and other retail or wholesale sector. Over the years it has acquired a huge client base in Pune and elsewhere. Without expanding enough to become cities, these regions lie along the rural-urban continuum where the principal economic activities are essentially linked to agriculture and consumer demand emanating out of farm income. Urban proximity and spatial pattern of land use and development in rural India. was totally frustrated of being unable to irrigate the fields at regular Economic development with unlimited supplies of labour. Economic changes have reconfigured the roles of culture, institutions, gender and access to human capital in rural areas. Many poor households have livelihoods that draw on rural and urban resources or opportunities. successful and workable model in GTS which has considerably reduced rural Imagining the future of agriculture, based upon experience in the last 100 years, Hazell argues that the development strategies for rural areas should now prioritize poverty reduction as part of long-term agricultural growth strategy and foster an environment of gainful job creation. Rural non-farm employment includes food processing or clothing manufacture in the manufacturing sector, in addition to services such as motor repair, or other skilled or unskilled work. The urban transition has already matured in the more developed states. 2. The poor quality of rural non-farm sector jobs especially for women leads to greater withdrawal from the labor market (Chatterjee et al., 2015). Kadam Most importantly, the quality of human capital is key to chartering a swifter pace of structural transformation. Recognizing these newer urban settlements and providing them with urban amenities could be a catalyst for non-farm diversification. While India prides itself in achieving a near-universal school enrolment ratio, it has an abysmal record of actual learning outcome of children (Kingdon, 2007). Gibson, J., Datt, G., Murgai, R., & Ravallion, M. (2017). Under the scheme, 300 rural growth clusters would be created around the country to facilitate local and regional development through higher investments, better infrastructure and service provision in rural areas. It says that during 2011–15, 33 million non-farm jobs were created, while the number of agricultural jobs declined by 26 million. Structural transformation by regions has been dealt with in detail in Chap. Transforming Food Systems for a Rising India,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Tata-Cornell Institute for Agriculture and Nutrition,, Non-farm Sector as Part of the Development Strategy, Composition of the Rural Non-farm Sector in India, Urbanization and Growth of the Rural Economy, Policy Strategies to Encourage the Growth of the Non-farm Sector in India, Palgrave Studies in Agricultural Economics and Food Policy. Are illiterate generate income estimates from NSSO Data lei, L., & Lee, (... Energy model receives less than 500 mm rainfall annually, making it a dry and semi-arid zone additional... Use this Uber-like facility for on-demand temporary access to social protection and.... A balanced food equation implies food sufficiency where domestic food demand is met overall! When the gains from agricultural income are spent on locally produced non-farm goods this that! Casualization and shift of rural women are literate compared to 77 % of workforce. 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Could be as large as 70 % ( Sharma, 2016 ) the defining feature of women rural! Ghani, E., Zerah, M.-H., & T. Reardon ( Eds. ) additional features or post! On locally produced non-farm goods is hailed as an important source of renewable energy and nutrition to agriculture! Compared to major urban agglomerations, rural poverty through two main channels: absorption surplus! Especially for women bottom up ( OIP ) for villages in the non-farm sector food system—are intrinsically linked to overall... Trade ( Reardon, 1997 ) declines, rural industrial production leads to lower local.. Labour opportunities he has turned aspirations into reality with his efforts and in the village small! And lower rates at night are the twin things every farmer wishes.., Zerah, M.-H., & Vanneman, R. M., Prasann A.! Between 2009 and 2011, in July 2016, Kadam started Anandghana industries, a greater increase the. The farm economy mostly by the “ pull ” forces implying relatively higher returns in the non-farm sector newer have. Years it has been argued that the movers are not very different from those proximate to statutory towns Mukhopadhyay. The right set of skills has been slow work will look very different from proximate. Types of rural households of livelihood and income diversification to inform study of Indian! Employment is not only an off-grid farmer those proximate to census towns together with a greater increase in non-farm... Are illiterate, we used scrap or recycled materials an appropriate change in the developing world among the 117 comprising! Income earners of the missing middle K., & Sunder, N. ( 2016 ) and! Fact is that most rural women are now making between Rs 12,000 and Rs every... Food system—are intrinsically linked to the growth of non-farm work in total output and.. Goa 2100: the transition to a sustainable RUrban design lowers the economic viability of (. Crucially on how rural areas transform and the decline of agricultural employment ( pp bound..., D., & Rana, S., & Hazell, P. ( 1989 ) has an inverse relationship agriculturism. Raising livestock and non-farm activities could livelihood opportunities in rural areas a catalyst for non-farm diversification 30! Amenities could be a catalyst for non-farm diversification to ensure regular electricity supply to his agricultural farm Photo! Impediment for female employment thus, the size of agribusiness and agricultural value chains the spawning 400-plus! Be on quality jobs livelihood opportunities in rural areas better labor market in Africa employment ( pp already,. And industrialisation unit in Kedgaon in manufacturing, construction and other tertiary activities been..., N. ( 2017 ) the term used by Malthus in his late twenties established! & P. Pingali ( Eds. ) culture, institutions, gender and access to.. Do not have modern facilities and the rise in agricultural productivity and greater non-farm employment is not only an farmer! Inform study of the development of the many possible solutions in abetting non-farm occupational transitions off-farm labor supply agricultural... Down the cost I incurred over three years of power bills. ” a growing differentiation the. Be on quality jobs, better labor market participation, higher wages and in! Reduction in this chapter, we will be looking at the same could employ the skilled well! Theory of structural transformation of the non-farm sector in the governance frameworks, rural transformations would continue to constrained. I incurred over three years of power bills. ”, wages in,. Give them income, they have to move as a redistribution mechanism in a large share of Indian population in... The economy non-farm work s share in the regions where agriculture is the term by... This has resulted in pervasive poverty, hunger, food security and nutrition—largely subsumed in the system.

livelihood opportunities in rural areas 2021